Features of development of the countries of Central Asia after the collapse of the USSR. Kazakhstan – the Development of the countries of Central Asia after the collapse of the Soviet Union – history
Features of development of the countries of Central Asia after the collapse of the USSR. Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan adopted the Declaration of sovereignty on 25 October 1990 Kazakhstan’s Independence was proclaimed on 16 December 1991 in the last of the Soviet republics.
Kazakhstan is huge (2725 thousand sq. km) territory: from the foothills of the southern Urals to the Tien Shan, from the Caspian to the plains of Western Siberia. Kazakhstan is a country of ancient civilization of the Eurasian continent, the homeland of nomadic tribes, a solid piece of the Great silk road (1,400 km). [15,p. 125]
About 60% of Kazakhstan urbanized. This is the most urbanized Republic in Central Asia. In Almaty, the southern capital of the Republic has the largest number of people (about 1.5 million inhabitants). The cities with the largest number of residents: Astana (500,000), Karaganda (436,000), Shymkent (360,000), Taraz (330,000), Ust – Kamenogorsk (311,000) and Pavlodar (300,000).
Kazakhstan’s population includes many ethnic groups with their cultural, language and historical specificity. The largest ethnic group – Kazakhs (45%) and Russians (35%), more than 100 other nationalities. The main religions are Islam and Christianity.
The ethnic composition of the population, impact of migration,administrative and colonial policy of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union formed a complex ethnic composition of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Until the end of the XIX century in the countryside was dominated by the Kazakhs, urban Russians, which was about a tenth of the population. In the middle of the XX century as a result of migration and exile in Kazakhstan, other peoples, the Kazakhs had become a minority in their own Republic and amounted to 30 % of its population in 1959, while the Slavs – more
50 %. With the 60-ies of the share of the Kazakh population has continuously increased due to natural increase migration and return migration of Slavs and Germans. In 1989, out of 16.5 million people lived in Kazakhstan, 40 % were Kazakhs, 45 % – Slavs, about 6 % Germans, 2 % – Tatars and Uighurs. During the years of independence as a result of emigration of Slavs, Germans, Tatars, their share among the population of Kazakhstan and in General the population has decreased. The 1999 census recorded that from 14953 thousand people. 8 million (53,4 %) – Kazakhs, 5.2 million (35 %) – the Slavs, of 0.37 million (2,47 %) – Uzbeks, 0, 35 million (2.36 per cent), Germans, and 0.29 million (1,66 %) – Tatars, 0,21 million (1.4 percent) Uighurs, 0.1 million (0,66 %) – Koreans. Azerbaijanis, Dungans, poles, Kurds, Chechens, Tajiks, Bashkirs, Ingush, Bulgarians, Lezgins, etc. count from 70 to 10 thousand people.
In Northern Kazakhstan a Russian majority, the Russian Cossacks live compactly in East Kazakhstan, Semirechye and the Western Kazakhstan. Uzbeks are concentrated in rural areas in the South the Tatars in the cities.
The Kazakhs (name – “Kazakh”) belong to the Turkic peoples of the Kypchak language group. In the formation of the nation was attended by many Turkic and Mongol tribes, there is an Iranian element. The division into three zhuzes and tribes still affect the political life of the country. The most significant tribes of the Elder Zhuz – zhalair, Dulat, Alban, Kangly, shaprashty (tribe N. And. Nazarbayev), oshakty, Sary-uysun, Sergeli, ysty. The middle Zhuz – Argyn, Naiman, Kipchak, ke-Rey, congrat, UAQ, Junior Zhuz – Alim-uly, Bai-uly, Zheti-ru. The country’s leadership has traditionally been formed of representatives from the Senior Zhuz. The descendants of Arabs preachers are a small group of “skin” Genghis Khan – group “Torah”.
The Kazakhs are divided people. About 1.3 million of them live in Sinitta-not, to 0.5 million in Russia, about 700 thousand – in Uzbekistan, groups of up to 100 thousand – in Mongolia and Turkmenistan. The total number of Kazakhs is more than 11 million people. Traditionally Kazakhs are followers of the Hanafi school of the Sunni branch of Islam. Compared to other Central Asian States, the influence of Islam in Kazakhstan remains weak. With the exception of the southern parts of the country.
The largest cities of Kazakhstan are Almaty (1 300 thousand inhabitants, 40% of Kazakhs), Karaganda (600 thousand 35 %), Shymkent (400 thousand 60 %), Semipalatinsk (330 thousand 30 %), Astana (310 thousand 40 %), Pavlodar (350 thousand), Ust-Kamenogorsk (350 thousand) and Taraz (Dzhambul, 307 thousand)4. The proportion of urban population during the years of independence declined from 60 to 55 % due to emigration of the Russian population.