Citrus – Inspired by the culture of citrus fruits
The trench culture based on the principle of heat transfer walls and bottom of trenches, in which, with proper shelter from above, in winter the temperature remains positive even at lower external air up to -20 ° -25°. This method of culture citrus is specific for areas with deep, warm loess soils, does not require additional costs not only for winter heating, but also at creating in the trenches an artificial nutrient substrate (N. V. Smolsky).
Dry subtropics of Central Asia may become the second production base of citrus fruits in our country. Inspired by the culture of citrus expedient not only in Tajikistan but also in many areas of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The development of trench culture in Tajikistan was launched in 1949 and by the end of 1967, the districts of Vakhsh valley were already 45 thousand plants, about half of them fruit-bearing, with gross harvest for the last years, more than 2 million fruit.
In collective farms and state farms of the Tajikistan of citrus to build a model trench width 3 m, depth 1.7 m and a length of 60 m. the Plants are placed in trenches in one row. In loamy loess soil walls of the trench are well kept and did not require Assembly; if the soil is weak, a wall spread brick or concreted.
Are currently building more capital trench width 5.2 m type of ground of the barn, laying out the walls. For these tranches require large costs, but they are easier to care for plants. They can grow trees in two rows and with a more voluminous crown. In ground sheds it is recommended to cultivate largely oranges and vigorous varieties of lemon.
In areas where winter temperatures don’t drop below -15 -16°, it is advisable to build a small gable polytrans depth of 0.8—1 m, width 3 m without rafters, disturbing the plants. In these trenches the lemon are cultivated in dwarf form. Trenches connecting links at a distance of 4 m from each other with a common connection platform. Between the links leave the road width is 6 m and around trench farm create nadosadocnuu lane.
Plant care in the trenches is about the same as in the open ground. It consists of regular watering, soil care, shaping and pruning, pest and disease, etc.
In the trenches cultivate a Meyer lemon, obtained by grafting, other varieties are grafted on seedlings of Meyer lemon. On agroprofil collective farm. Lenin (Azerbaijan) in the plantations of citrus fruit grown in the trenches, it is recommended to make each year 15-20 kg of humus, 0.5 kg of superphosphate, 0.5 kg of ammonium sulfate and 0.15 kg of potassium for each plant. Summer organic fertilizing very good influence on the citrus.
The cultivation of lemon in the trenches economically. For example, on the Vakhsh experiment station has collected from the area of 1.46 ha 181693 of the fruit and saved the day for them 34 214 rubles rate of return was 321%. the cost of one fruit at a cost of 4.5 kopeks.
Baskayev M. G. and M. N. Abaev reported on the cultivation of lemon in the trenches, covered for the winter, the farm to them. Negmat Kara Baev in the Vakhsh district of Tajikistan. Although inspired by the culture of the lemon requires a large investment, the costs are repaid in 5-7 years after planting. In the future, after the entry of plants at the time of full fruiting the farm from the sale of fruit every year can get more than 20 thousand rubles of net income from 1 ha.
According to N. V. Smolskaya, the best varieties of lemon for trench culture in Central Asia are Meyer lemon, Genoa, Villa Franca, Lisbon and Lunaria. The variety of oranges is less studied. For the production testing can be recommended Goldcrest, Jaffa, Washington Brought, the Firstborn of the USSR, Hamlin, Best Sukhumi.